Monday, July 17, 2017


Empower the people - RATIFICATION and NULLIFICATION.ppsx from Niki Hannevig

There appears to be evidence sufficient to show that the 1787 “Constitution for the United States of America” was never submitted to the people who were enfranchised to vote for its ratification. It is, therefore, incumbent upon, “the people" to ratify the 1787 “Constitution for the United States of America” and begin anew with the nullification of amendments 11 through 27. Share the plan.

Sunday, June 25, 2017


IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to (1) dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and (2) to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should (3) declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

To whom have “political bands” connected a people?

What is their profit motive?

 Why is statutory compliance with a mandatory system of corporate healthcare important?

When those who penned that “one people” were to “assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them”, were they aware that those “people” had an identifiable DNA that set them apart as “one”? 
Deu 1:8 The Scriptures 1998+  ‘See, I have set the land before you. Go in and possess the land which יהוה swore to your fathers, to Aḇraham, to Yitsḥaq, and to Yaʽaqoḇ, to give to them and their seed after them.’
Given the memorialized historic and scientific background, if you were a 28 USC 3002(10) compliant “PERSON”, how would you profit as you eliminate your competition for world dominion? 
What do YOU want for YOUR posterity?

Yahshua, a man who dealt with "political bands", lawyers, and the "moneychangers" of His day is recorded to have said:
"I shall give you the keys of the reign of the heavens, and whatever you bind on earth shall be having been bound in the heavens, and whatever you loosen on earth shall be having been loosened in the heavens.” (Binding and loosening is Hebrew idiom for exercising authority; to prohibit and permit - Mat 16:19 The Scriptures 1998+)
Think about it.

As a relevant adjunct to this post see BBC News' 21 June 2017 segment;
Missing babies: Israel's Yemenite children affair 

 By Yolande Knell BBC News, Jerusalem

And, pursuant to Revelation 3:9 read what follows and ask:

Was the Balfour Declaration that created the STATE of ISRAEL a 'handshake and a wink' between mammon worshiping "Lords"; Balfour and Rothschild?

Is "mammon" the name of the god noted on U.S. notes and carved into the U.S.' coin?

November 2nd, 1917

Dear Lord Rothschild,

I have much pleasure in conveying to you, on behalf of His Majesty's Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet.

"His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country."

I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation.

Yours sincerely,
Arthur James Balfour 

Here are some questions from Proverbs 30:4.
Who has gone up to the heavens and come down? Who has gathered the wind in His fists? Who has bound the waters in a garment? Who established all the ends of the earth? What is His Name, And what is His Son’s Name, If you know it? 

Sunday, April 28, 2013

On "maintenance", "champerty", and "schmooze"

Was it the ancient story of a man called Rikayon that provided members of medieval Guilds and, more recent, BAR Associations with the pattern for our nation's (current) oppressive form of 'governance*?  Should who governs be decided by his, or her, schmooze appeal? 

For the answers, read the following passages from the Book of Jasher, Chapter 14, then a 1905 publication, Modern Views of Champerty and Maintenance

As you read, notice how Rikayon, a "wise man" who desired to be maintained by the king, usurped the government of Egypt by devising a scheme to "exact a tax from the dead". 
How does Rikayon's desire for "maintenance" relate to the lucrative business practices of (some) Lawyers and Politicians who are gifted, not with wisdom but, in the fine art of schmoozing?  Are you, the reader, aware that the definition of "mortgage" is "dead pledge"? 
Has our intended form of government (particularly the judicial branch) been usurped in a manner similar to those that laid waste ancient civilizations?  You decide.   Here's the story. 

1 In those days there was in the land of Shinar a wise man who had understanding in all wisdom, and of a beautiful appearance, but he was poor and indigent; his name was Rikayon and he was hard set to support himself.

2 And he resolved to go to Egypt, to Oswiris the son of Anom king of Egypt, to show the king his wisdom; for perhaps he might find grace in his sight, to raise him up and give him maintenance and Rikayon did so. . . .
26 And when the king heard the words of Rikayon and his wisdom, Rikayon found grace in his sight, and he met with grace and kindness from all the servants of the king and from all the inhabitants of Egypt, on account of his wisdom and excellent speeches, and from that time they loved him exceedingly.
27 And the king answered and said to Rikayon, Thy name shall no more be called Rikayon but Pharaoh shall be thy name, since thou didst exact a tax from the dead; and he called his name Pharaoh.
28 And the king and his subjects loved Rikayon for his wisdom, and they consulted with all the inhabitants of Egypt to make him prefect under the king.
29 And all the inhabitants of Egypt and its wise men did so, and it was made a law in Egypt.
31 And (one entitled man) Rikayon Pharaoh cunningly usurped the government of Egypt, and he exacted a tax from all the inhabitants of Egypt.
Now the pertinent pages from the Harvard Law Review Vol. 18, No. 3, Jan., 1905:
Two more questions; For what purpose had American courts (prior to 1905) ignored the vital question as to whether or not a particular contract under consideration was not, in reality, against the public interest, or as being extortionate and unconscionable? 
If the judiciary was this corrupt in 1905, how corrupt is it now?
Maintenance - 4. In law, an officious intermeddling in a suit in which the person has no interest, by assisting either party with money or means to prosecute or defend it. This is a punishable offense. But to assist a poor kinsman from compassion, is not maintenance.
Champerty - n. A species of maintenance, being a bargain with a plaintiff or defendant, to divide the land or other matter in suit, between them, if they prevail; whereupon the champertor is to carry on the partys suit at his own expense. The purchase of a suit, or of the right of suing.
*Governance - n. Government; exercise of authority; direction; control; management, either of a public officer, or of a private guardian or tutor.

Tuesday, April 16, 2013

Is there a profit motive for Legislated Treason?

For what purpose do legislators reject ancient principles of law for political expediency?
Mat 12:29 - " . . . how is one able to enter a strong man’s house (nation) and plunder his goods, unless he first binds the strong man (men)? And then he shall plunder his house(s).
Mar 3:27 - "No one is able to enter a strong man’s house (nation) and plunder his goods, unless he first binds the strong man (men), and then he shall plunder his house."
There is a practice of long standing for belligerents, at the outbreak of war, to enact prize law through statutory legislation; such enactments are presumed to be declaratory of international law but are, in any event, binding on the courts.

Sunday, April 14, 2013

Achieving that "more perfect union"

There's much to learn about forming that "more perfect union" that was to be governed by "the Laws of Nature and of Nature's GOD". 

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Tuesday, October 23, 2012

Integrity Training

"Integrity Training" is a self-paced course composed of power point presentations and quizzes that are designed to teach the participant about themselves, systems, and group dynamics. Each of the topics presented relate to one or more of the 7 identified aspects of our individual and collective lives; physical, mental, emotional, vocational, social, intellectual and spiritual. As the participant participates, it is expected that he or she will learn something about their "self", the intricate and organic workings of systems, and how common difficulties related to facilitating cohesive (working) groups can be either overcome, or minimized.

Sunday, October 21, 2012

The Truth About Dishonesty

Tuesday, October 09, 2012

Will your reward be 70 "virgins", or 10 "virgins"?

Because the Arabic language has a closer relationship to the Hebrew language than English, it seems reasonable to believe the Hebraic idioms would be similar to those used by Arabs.  With that said; have you ever used Strong's Concordance to look up the meaning of the word "virgin"?

The Hebrew word for "virgin" - or "maiden" - is listed in Strong's Concordance as H1330 and is translated as:

Feminine passive participle of an unused root meaning to separate; a virgin (from her privacy); sometimes (by continuation) a bride; also (figuratively) a city or state: - maid, virgin.

Therefore, in reality, the Hebrew word for "virgin" is likely to be the word Yahshua used as the "figurative" meaning for a city (or state) in the 'parable of the talents'.
Since Hebrew idioms are probably better understood by those who speak Arabic, it seems probable that media has put a sexual "spin" on the figurative meaning of the word "virgin".  Was this deliberate?  If so, who had the authority to correct it?  Why has misinterpretation of the desired reward for Jews, Christians and Muslims continued? 
What bothers me most is that Alah is reported to give his servants authority over 70+ cities for their well doing, while, in Luke 19:17, Yahweh gives HIS servants only 10 cities.   What's this about?
Is there a lesson here?  If so; What is that lesson?
Luke 19:17 reads:  " . . . he said unto him, Well, thou good servant: because thou hast been faithful in a very little, have thou authority over ten cities.

Thursday, September 13, 2012

How would someone living in the First Century AD describe what they were seeing in a prophetic vision?

Consider the following verses from The Scriptures 1998+ translation as provided for download at e-sword:

Rev 4:6
And before the throne there was a sea of glass, like crystal*. And in the midst of the throne, and around the throne, were four living creatures, covered with eyes in front and in back.

Could what John described as "a sea of glass, like crystal" have been computer monitors?

Could the "four living creatures, covered with eyes" be what we could now perceive to be the movement of video cameras?

Rev 15:2
And I saw like a sea of glass mixed with fire, and those overcoming the beast and his image and his mark and the number of his name, standing on the sea of glass, holding harps of Elohim.

Was it a TV screen showing flames that John saw?

Were "those overcoming the beast and his image . . . " seen “on” TV, "standing" by something ablaze?

Could that which was on fire have been the bundled darnel (tares) mentioned in Mat. 13:30?

Would the instruments John described as "harps" now be described as mobile phones or I-pads?

What is the definition of "crystal"?
* 7. electronics
a. a crystalline element used in certain electronic devices as a detector, oscillator, transducer, etc.

Saturday, August 18, 2012

The Harmonized "Laws of Nature" v Legislated "Harmonization"

Because no transition word (e.g.; Because ... or Although ... ) was inserted at the beginning of the second paragraph of the Declaration of Independence it was left for mankind to do what is "right in his own eyes" (Deu. 12:8; Jdg. 17:6; 21:25; Pro. 12:15; 21:2) as he "instituted among Men" the "Form of Government" he would choose to have to secure his "unalienable Rights". 

In 1776 the discussion amongst the signers of the aforementioned "Declaration" included two apparent options for government; the first paragraph's form of Government under the "Laws of Nature and of Nature's God", and; the second paragraph's perpetuation of the form of Government that had (by virtue of their deployment for the purpose of corporately chartered colonization) been "endowed (on them) by their Creator".  

Consider what it means to be in "harmony" with the rules "of Nature and of Nature's God" and those rules that are promulgated, and subsequently legislated, by corporately employed men for the benefit of "their (corporation's) Creator". 

The following article about "resonant geometry" is a key to understanding the harmonic universal "Laws of Nature".  Below the article are definitions that exemplify how words are being used by a counterfiet "Creator" (that is referred to as "GOD" as in, "IN GOD WE TRUST") to convey unintended attributes to those harmonic Laws which are inviolate.

Harmonisation in a man made Harmonized System of governance.

Classification harmonisation involves the alignment, wherever possible, of the underlying concepts and definitions of both similar and disparate classifications to produce classifications which can related to the maximum extent possible within the constraints of the requirements of individual classifications.

Harmonisation is the process of combining or comparing data for purposes of analysis, either through the use of similar standard definitions and classifications, or through a complex set of explanations on how to achieve comparisons across standards and classifications.

In the harmonisation of classifications, building blocks for common groupings and regroupings of items from different structures of the classifications are identified. The process is facilitated by reducing or eliminating minor differences among the classifications.

Harmonisation of classifications requires continuous co-ordination and exchange of information between the custodians of the relevant classifications on a regular basis. Without such exchange, different interpretations of similar concepts and categories will occur.

In the harmonisation process the classifications could be described as reference, derived or related classifications.

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, Fourth Meeting of the Expert Group on International Economic and Social Classifications, New York, 2-4 November 1998: A Statement of Best Practices.

Harmonized System
Schedule of tariff nomenclature arranged in 6 digit codes allowing all participating countries to classify traded goods on a common basis. Beyond the 6 digit level, countries are free to introduce national distinctions for tariff or statistical purposes. The Harmonized System was implemented by the United States and other major GATT countries after Jan. 1, 1988. In the United States, the Harmonized Tariff Schedules of the U.S. and the Schedule B employ the Harmonized System.

Sunday, October 09, 2011

Sodom and Gomorrah revisited

Why must the American people re-learn the lessons of history?

Here is an excerpt from Chapter 19 of the ancient Book of Jasher. In this account you will find that it was the decisions of "four judges" (not homosexuality) that brought "judgment" on the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah.

31 And Paltith daughter of Lot went forth that day to fetch water, and she put bread into her pitcher of water, and she went to draw water by the poor man's place, and she took out the bread from the pitcher and gave it to the poor man and he ate it.

32 And the three men saw what Paltith did to the poor man, and they said to her, It is thou then who hast supported him, and therefore has he not starved, nor changed in appearance nor died like the rest.

33 And the three men went out of the place in which they were concealed, and they seized Paltith and the bread which was in the poor man's hand.

34 And they took Paltith and brought her before their judges, and they said to them, Thus did she do, and it is she who supplied the poor man with bread, therefore did he not die all this time; now therefore declare to us the punishment due to this woman for having transgressed our law.

35 And the people of Sodom and Gomorrah assembled and kindled a fire in the street of the city, and they took the woman and cast her into the fire and she was burned to ashes.

Friday, September 02, 2011

Era of Love & Peace (man known as Vic Beck)

Monday, July 11, 2011

YADA . . . Yada . . . yada . . .

What was the "Original Sin"?

We seem to have forgotten that ALL law is contractual.

Even at the beginning, Yahweh Elohim gave contractual stipulations to the man, Adam, and the woman, Eve, in the care of their freehold.

When the serpent came around (consider the serpent as a feudal master, mafia Don, or Corporation sole) the serpent made an "offer", the Eve and Adam "accepted" the offer, and the fruit of the excluded tree (which, incidentally, did not belong to the serpent) was the "consideration" that sealed their contract.

HOWEVER; Since there is no longer "lawful" money - it's been debt-based since the mid to late 60s - and our "unalienable" economic and property Rights have been brokered into bond contracts ALL contracts, real and implied, have become "adhesive".  Furthermore, ALL these contracts are "unconscionable" in that they require debt-based monetary consideration for which we are the surety. This is Peonage and peonage is illegal!  Such unconscionable contracts include and are not limited to; birth-certificates, marriage and driver's licenses, real-estate transactions, and tithes and offerings . . . .

David said in Psalm 110 that there WILL be a remnant who volunteer when the time is right.

Isn't it time we stop contracting with the devil, a "corporation sole", and dissolve the authorities, commissions, etc. that are wasting the assets of our freehold and presuming their rulership over us?

Is it enough to say "Yada . . . yada . . . yada . . ." when these questions are raised?

Wednesday, June 01, 2011

AARON BOLINGER: Biblical and Constitutional Connection with Sound Money

Aaron Bolinger is the Legislative Director for the National Veteran’s Committee on Constitutional Affairs. Aaron’s political involvement spans over three decades, including several years on Capitol Hill as a registered lobbyist. He is also a pastor and bible translator, and incorporates “America’s Bible Heritage” themes into most of his political discussions for state legislators and the general public. He has testified in numerous state capitols over the years on diverse local-interest legislation, and works with assorted grass-roots groups as a strategist to both get legislation moving, and to build coalitions for broader-based public support of pro-Constitution campaigns. For the NVCCA he authors Issue Briefs and model legislation, and helps package and tailor the information for the use of specific state legislators.

Saturday, March 19, 2011


Monday, February 07, 2011

Bruce Lipton on the science of being

Saturday, February 05, 2011

My time, your time, and אלהים's time.

Are you having difficulty trusting the process? 

Consider the following:

1.  ETH Zurich biologists, led by Professors Martin Ackermann and Wolf-Dietrich Hardt, in collaboration with Michael Doebeli of the University of British Colombia in Vancouver (CN), have been able to describe how random molecular processes during cell division allow some cells to engage in a self-destructive act to generate a greater common good, thereby improving the situation of the surviving siblings. 

2.  Andrew Millar of the University of Edinburgh's School of Biological Sciences, said: " . . . research shows that body clocks are ancient mechanisms that have stayed with us through a billion years of evolution. They must be far more important and sophisticated than we previously realised. More work is needed to determine how and why these clocks developed in people -- and most likely all other living things on earth -- and what role they play in controlling our bodies.".  And,

3.  Luk 12:37 "Blessed are those servants whom the master, when He comes, shall find watching. Truly, I say to you that He shall gird Himself and make them sit down to eat, and shall come and serve them."

Sunday, December 05, 2010

Comparative embryology: The inside story of a superior AND sustainable Form of government

From EMBRYOLOGY: Encyclopedia Americana (Deluxe Library Edition; 1992) Vol 10:

Page 294: Are you in the embryonic Body of Messiah?

Pages 296:  " . . . Each cell in a four-celled embryo (resulting from the first two divisions of the egg) is normally destined to give rise to a limited part of the complete embryo.  If, however, the four cells are experimentally separated, each of them in isolation from the rest will independently produce a complete embryo.  If two four-celled embryos are combined, the eight cells will become integrated and form a single normal embryo.  Thus embryonic cells "sense" the absence or presence of other cells in their immediate environment and regulate their performance accordingly, either by expanding or by limiting their inherent developmental repertory.  . . .  Thus cell association within a multicellular environment is essential for continued progression of specific avenues of differentiation and, in many cases, for the persistence of the differentiated state of the cells.  . . . various kinds of messenger RNA . . . are stored in the cytoplasm in an inactive form. . . . "

Page 297:  "Finally, the structure and function of the differentiated cell are also dependent on a characteristic spatial distrubution and ordering of the various constituents and products within the cell.  Only when this characteristic "compartmentalization" is achieved does the cell attain its typical differentiated form and functional state.  . . . The regions of the embryo become gradually determined at different stages of development, each preceding step in this process preparing the cells for the next phase in their advancement toward their determination.

Page 298:  " . . . Hans Spemann and Hilde Mangold in 1925 . . . (C)ells "induce" or "instruct" their partners in interaction to pursue specific developmental courses. . . . To reach the right locations and join with the appropriate interactants, cells must be endowed with recognition mechanisms in their surfaces that would enable them to discern the identity of cells in their immediate environment. In order to become inductive or be able to respond to induction, cells must attain a state of competence, which is part of their progressive individual and collective differentiation. . . . "

Page 299 - 300:   " . . . There are several types of cell recognition. One, the "self" type, is between like cells.  Another may be between different but functionally complementary types of cells . . . Still another may be between histologically distinct but functionally matching cells . . . Various intermediate and highly precise kinds of cellular recognition operate - for example, in the organization of the central nervous system, in which different types of neurons link up with exquisite precision and specificity into the networks and circuits that make up the brain. . . . " 

See Isaiah 43:1-2 and 5-13Romans 11:16-29 and "the parable of the sower".  Be ever cognizant of teratogens.

Ephesians 4:4 - 7 There is one body, and one Spirit, even as you also were called in one hope of your calling; one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of all, who is over all, and through all, and in us all. But to each one of us was the grace given according to the measure of the gift of Christ.

Are you willingly moving toward what may be the most "perfect" form of government?  That form of government where each man, woman and child attains, and responsibly performs, their predestined function in the body of Messiah?

Thursday, November 25, 2010


Saturday, July 03, 2010

Usurpation of one's sovereignty and the origins of the death tax.

On July 1, 2010 ABC News (finally) provided to the American people what is presumed to be "the official story" about what happened to Jerry and Joe Kane and two Arkansas policemen who were shot dead on May 20th.  But WHY is there such an emphasis on Jerry's claim to being "sovereign"?  Because our constitutional Form of government is a contractual form of government aren't ALL American's "sovereign"?  If individual sovereignity was not the intent for the people of our nation, what would have motivated our individual and collective 'states' to implement the "castle doctrine"?


The American interpretation of this doctrine is largely derived from the English Common Law as it stood in the 1700s. In Book 4, Chapter 16 of William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England, he says:

And the law of England has so particular and tender a regard to the immunity of a man's house, that it stiles it his castle, and will never suffer it to be violated with immunity: agreeing herein with the sentiments of ancient Rome, as expressed in the works of Tully; quid enim sanctius, quid omni religione munitius, quam domus unusquisque civium? For this reason no doors can in general be broken open to execute any civil process; though, in criminal causes, the public safety supersedes the private. Hence also in part arises the animadversion of the law upon eaves-droppers, nusancers, and incendiaries: and to this principal it must be assigned, that a man may assemble people together lawfully without danger of raising a riot, rout, or unlawful assembly, in order to protect and defend his house; which he is not permitted to do in any other case.

Could it be that history has repeated itself?  And that the sovereign people of our nation have been collectively schmoozed by the likes of Pharaoh Rikayon who "cunningly usurped the government of Egypt" by exacting "a tax from the dead"?

Sunday, June 20, 2010

As long as human nature remains the same, history will repeat itself.

The following verses are taken from the Book of Jasher, Chapter 81. Notice the tendencies of each of the clans and what Moses said to them.

13 And all the Egyptians said to the children of Israel, Surely you said, We will go a journey for three days in the wilderness and sacrifice to our God and return.

14 Now therefore this day makes five days since you went, why do you not return to your masters?

25 And the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and beheld all the Egyptians pursuing them, and the children of Israel were greatly terrified at them, and the children of Israel cried to the Lord.

26 And on account of the Egyptians, the children of Israel divided themselves into four divisions, and they were divided in their opinions, for they were afraid of the Egyptians, and Moses spoke to each of them.

27 The first division was of the children of Reuben, Simeon, and Issachar, and they resolved to cast themselves into the sea, for they were exceedingly afraid of the Egyptians. (Suicidal.)

28 And Moses said to them, Fear not, stand still and see the salvation of the Lord which He will effect this day for you.

29 The second division was of the children of Zebulun, Benjamin and Naphtali, and they resolved to go back to Egypt with the Egyptians. (Acquiescent.)

30 And Moses said to them, Fear not, for as you have seen the Egyptians this day, so shall you see them no more for ever.

31 The third division was of the children of Judah and Joseph, and they resolved to go to meet the Egyptians to fight with them. (Belligerent.)

32 And Moses said to them, Stand in your places, for the Lord will fight for you, and you shall remain silent.

33 And the fourth division was of the children of Levi, Gad, and Asher, and they resolved to go into the midst of the Egyptians to confound them (Impulsive), and Moses said to them, Remain in your stations and fear not, only call unto the Lord that he may save you out of their hands.

Tuesday, June 01, 2010

And GOD said, . . .

Gen 1:27-31 (The Scriptures 1998) And Elohim created the man in His image, in the image of Elohim He created him – male and female He created them. And Elohim blessed them, and Elohim said to them, “Bear fruit and increase, and fill the earth and subdue it, and rule over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the heavens, and over all creatures moving on the earth.” And Elohim said, “See, I have given you every plant that yields seed which is on the face of all the earth, and every tree whose fruit yields seed, to you it is for food. “And to every beast of the earth, and to every bird of the heavens, and to every creeping creature on the earth, in which there is life, every green plant is for food.” And it came to be so.

And Elohim saw all that He had made, and see, it was very good. . . . .

Tuesday, December 29, 2009


Did your father honor his father's will and testament?

Will you?

Mal 4:6

And he shall turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the hearts of the children to their fathers, lest I come and smite the earth with utter destruction.”

THE following twelve books are biographies written between 107 and 137 B.C. They are a forceful exposition, showing how a Pharisee with a rare gift of writing secured publicity by using the names of the greatest men of ancient times. "There were intellectual giants in those days" and the Twelve Patriarchs were the Intellectual Giants!

Each is here made to tell his life story. When he is on his deathbed he calls all his children and grandchildren and great-grandchildren about him, and proceeds without reservation to lay bare his experiences for the moral guidance of his hearers. If he fell into sin he tells all about it and then counsels them not to err as he did. If he was virtuous, he shows what rewards were his.

When you look beyond the unvarnished--almost brutally frank--passages of the text, you will discern a remarkable attestation of the expectations of the Messiah which existed a hundred years before Christ. And there is another element of rare value in this strange series. As Dr. R. H. Charles says in his scholarly work on the Pseudepigrapha: its ethical teaching "has achieved a real immortality by influencing the thought and diction of the writers of the New Testament, and even those of our Lord. This ethical teaching, which is very much higher and purer than that of the Old Testament, is yet its true spiritual child and helps to bridge the chasm that divides the ethics of the Old and New Testaments."

The instances of the influence of these writings on the New Testament are notable in the Sermon on the Mount which reflects the spirit and even uses phrases from these Testaments. St. Paul appears to have borrowed so freely that it seems as though he must have carried a copy of the Testaments with him on his travels.

Thus, the reader has before him in these pages what is at once striking for its blunt primitive style and valuable as some of the actual source books of the Bible.


Testament of Reuben
" . . . my children, I say unto you, observe all things whatsoever I command you, and ye shall not sin. . . ."

Testament of Simeon
" . . . BEHOLD I have told you all things, that I may be acquitted of your sin. . . ."

Testament of Levi
" . . . And now, my children, ye have heard all; choose, therefore, for yourselves either the light or the darkness, either the law of the Lord or the works of Beliar. . . ."

The Testament of Judah
" . . . Observe, therefore, my children, all the law of the Lord, for there is hope for all them who hold fast unto, His ways. . . ."

The Testament of Issachar
" . . . And do you therefore give these commands to your children, that, if they sin, they may the more quickly return to the Lord; For He is merciful, and will deliver them, even to bring them back into their land. . . ."

The Testament of Zebulun
" . . . For I have learnt in the writing of my fathers, that ye shall be divided in Israel, and ye shall follow two kings, and shall work every abomination. . . ."

The Testament of Dan
" . . . OBSERVE, therefore, my children, the commandments of the Lord, and keep His law; depart from wrath, and hate lying, that the Lord may dwell among you, and Beliar may flee from you. . . . "

The Testament of Naphtali
" . . . Be ye therefore wise in God, my children, and prudent, understanding the order of His commandments, and the laws of every word, that the Lord may love you, . . ."

The Testament Of Gad
" . . . For I know that at the last your children shall depart from Him, and shall walk in all wickedness, and affliction and corruption before the Lord. . . ."

The Testament of Asher
" . . . And therefore shall ye be scattered as Gad and Dan my brethren, and ye shall know not your lands, tribe, and tongue. . . ."

The Testament of Joseph
" . . . If ye also, therefore, walk in the commandments of the Lord, my children, He will exalt you there, and will bless you with good things for ever and ever. . . . "

The Testament of Benjamin
" . . . If ye therefore, my children, walk in holiness according to the commandments of the Lord, ye shall again dwell securely with me, and all Israel shall be gathered unto the Lord. . . . "